In 1640 John IV was proclaimed King of Portugal and the Portuguese Restoration War began. In spite of the high death rate associated with the slaves involved in the mining industry, the owners that allowed slaves that extracted above the minimum amount of gold to keep the excesses, which in turn led to the possibility of manumission. In 1822, the son of Dom João VI, then prince-regent Dom Pedro I, proclaimed the independence of Brazil on September 7, 1822, and was crowned Emperor of the new Empire of Brazil. Has a constituency they called for more local autonomy and moderate nationalism.  However, when the Jaga attacked and conquered regions of Kongo in 1568, Portuguese assisted Kongo in their defeat. The first feitoria trade post overseas was established in 1445 on the island of Arguin, off the coast of Mauritania, to attract Muslim traders and monopolize the business in the routes travelled in North Africa.  Though the trade was largely dominated by the Gujurati, other groups such as the Turks, Persians, Armenians, Tamils and Abyssinians traded there. The sale of Portuguese Timor 1923 started a long and procrastinated process a discussion on the value of the colonies. The Superior Colonial School of Lisboa (Escola Superior Colonial, ESC), renamed Superior Institute of Overseas Studies (Instituto Superior de Estudos Ultramarinos, ISEU) is in charge of training the overseas administrators and civil service. Defense of the overseas provinces is in charge of locally recruited troops staffed by Portuguese officials. The rest of their territory is divided in districts administered by a commissioner. Also the crisis of 1930 marked the surge of planisme, or economic planification as the semi-official policy of Portugal and the overseas provinces. , The initial capture of Goa from the Bijapur sultanate in 1510 was soon countered by the Bijapuris, but with the help of Hindu privateer Timoji, on November 25 of the same year it was recaptured. During the War of the Castilian Succession, a large Castilian fleet attempted to wrest control of this lucrative trade, but were decisively defeated in the 1478 Battle of Guinea, which firmly established an exclusive Portuguese control.  By 1570 the Portuguese bought part of a Japanese port where they founded a small part of the city of Nagasaki, and it became the major trading port in Japan in the triangular trade with China and Europe. , Africans and Afro-Brazilians became the largest group of people in Minas Gerais. Look through examples of overseas territory translation in sentences, listen to pronunciation and learn grammar.  The Jesuits would have an essential role in the colonization of Brazil, including São Vicente, and São Paulo, the latter which Nóbrega co-founded. See more ideas about portuguese, overseas, angola. , The loss of colonies was one of the reasons that contributed to the end of the personal union with Spain. | SIMON, W. J. These heritage activities were extended to the Portuguese overseas territories, increasing the propagandistic impact emphasizing the historic rights over these colonies, advocated by the dictatorial regime. , The King's reaction to the ultimatum was exploited by republicans. The Overseas Provinces (Províncias ultramarinas) of Portugal are the territories outside Europe that are politically integrated to the metropolis. Luís Filipe's brother, Manuel, became King Manuel II of Portugal. This was probably an accidental discovery, but it has been speculated that the Portuguese secretly knew of Brazil's existence and that it lay on their side of the Tordesillas line. The Chinese then massacred Portuguese who resided at Ningbo and Fujian trading posts in 1545 and 1549, due to extensive and damaging raids by the Portuguese along the coast, which irritated the Chinese. Almeida refused to turn over power and soon placed Albuquerque under house arrest, where he remained until 1509. Although Portugal began the process of decolonizing East Timor in 1975, during 1999–2002 was sometimes considered Portugal's last remaining colony, as the Indonesian invasion of East Timor was not justified by Portugal.  By 1560, Sá and his forces had expelled the combined Huguenot, Scottish Calvinist, and slave forces from France Antarctique, but left survivors after burning their fortifications and villages. Disney states that the colonists did not until the transferring of the Kingdom in 1808 assert influence of policy changing due to direct contact, and historian Gabriel Paquette mentions that the threats in Brazil were largely unrealized in Portugal until 1808 because of effective policing and espionage. , In 1534, Gujarat faced attack from the Mughals and the Rajput states of Chitor and Mandu. ), leaving settlers to come up with new revenue sources.  The plot of the lands formed as a hereditary captaincies (Capitanias Hereditárias) to grantees rich enough to support settlement, as had been done successfully in Madeira and Cape Verde islands. Cape Verdean escudo, from 1931 African escudo, Portuguese (official) and Cape Verdean Creole, Portuguese Guinean escudo, from 1931 African escudo, Portuguese (official) and Guinea-Bissau Creole, Portuguese (official), Macanese or Macau Creole (known as Patuá) and Chinese (Cantonese), Mozambican escudo, from 1931 African escudo, Portuguese (official), Emakhuwa, Cisena and Xichangana, Portuguese (official), Indo-Portuguese Creoles, Konkani, Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Territories of Goa, Daman, Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli, São Tomé e Príncipe escudo, from 1931 African escudo, Portuguese (official) and Portuguese-based creoles. Although he failed to spike the gold revenue, two short-term companies he established for the plantation economy drove a significant increase in production of cotton, rice, cacao, tobacco, sugar.  By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974. After the sale of Timor, in 1923, there was pressure to maintain the integrity of the former colonies. It was published in 1595; the text was then included in the larger volume published in 1596 under the title "Itinerario: voyage, ofte schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien, 1579–1592". Salazar refused to recognize the transfer of sovereignty, believing the territories to be merely occupied. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was normally exempt. Selected response from: David Moore Local time: 16:18: Grading comment . The Goa Inquisition (Bombay, 1961). These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million Portuguese refugees – the retornados. The Ministry is also in charge of the scientific research in the overseas (Junta de Investigações Científicas do Ultramar). Following the granting of independence to India by Britain in 1947, and the decision by France to allow its enclaves in India to be incorporated into the newly independent nation, pressure was placed on Portugal to do the same. In 1521 a force led by António Correia captured Bahrain, defeating the Jabrid King, Muqrin ibn Zamil. In the Portuguese overseas territories the natives live and work side by side with the whites as Portuguese citizens, absorbing Western culture gradually and without being hurried toward an independence for which their government does not consider them yet to be fitted.  Learning of Siamese ambitions over Malacca, Albuquerque immediately sent Duarte Fernandes on a diplomatic mission to the Kingdom of Siam (modern Thailand), where he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations and trade between both kingdoms. Finally the civilization mission of the Portuguese republic and the use of the colonies as an economic outlet weighted in keeping the colonies as part of Portugal. Europe's overseas territories: What you need to know. , The increase in brazilwood smuggling from the French led João III to press an effort to establish effective occupation of the territory. That year the Portuguese also conquered Kannur, where they founded St. Angelo Fort, and Lourenço de Almeida arrived in Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), where he discovered the source of cinnamon. , Although requested by Manuel I to further explore interests in Malacca and Sri Lanka, Almeida instead focused on western India, in particular the Sultanate of Gujarat due to his suspicions of traders from the region possessing more power. overseas provinces, those which have a regime do indigenato, that is a separate administrative system for the African pop- ulation, and those which do not.  The crown also restricted the diamond mining within its jurisdiction and to private contractors. These heritage activities were extended to the Portuguese overseas territories, increasing the propagandistic impact emphasizing the historic rights over these colonies, advocated by the dictatorial regime. In 1954, a local uprising resulted in the overthrow of the Portuguese authorities in the Indian enclave of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The Overseas Ministry keeps its administrative functions and Provincial General Directors are established as advisory and technical secretaries of the provincial Executive Councils. 205-206 above. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. At the same time, the Estado da Índia was preparing the commemoration of the Portuguese conquest of its capital Goa, which was taken by Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453–1515) in … Scientific Expeditions in the Portuguese Overseas Territories (1783-1808), and the Role of Lisbon in the Intellectual-Scientific Community of the Late Eighteenth Century | Simon, William Joel | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. In retaliation, the Portuguese fought and destroyed the Mamluks and Gujarati fleets in the sea Battle of Diu in 1509. Already cultivated in Algarve, the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. While following the same south-westerly route as Gama across the Atlantic Ocean, Cabral made landfall on the Brazilian coast.  Manila was also incorporated into the Macau-Nagasaki trading network, allowing Macanese of Portuguese descent to act as trading agents for Philippine Spaniards and use Spanish silver from the Americas in trade with China, and they later drew competition with the Dutch East India Company. The so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia.  Around 1521, João Álvares Fagundes was granted donatary rights to the inner islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and also created a settlement on Cape Breton Island to serve as a base for cod fishing. To me, as an ENS, "portugal's territory" is on mainland Europe; Madeira is as above. A United Nations-sponsored referendum resulted in a majority of East Timorese choosing independence, which was finally achieved in 2002. Both the Portuguese and Kongo fought against Ndongo, and off-and-on warfare between the Ndongo and Portugal would persist for decades. All religious schools were closed or severely limited in the number of teachers and students they could have. Two years later, on October 5, 1910, he was overthrown and fled into exile in England in Fulwell Park, Twickenham near London and Portugal became a republic.  The Portuguese explorer Simão de Andrade incited poor relations with China due to his pirate activities, raiding Chinese shipping, attacking a Chinese official, and kidnappings of Chinese. In 1506, King Manuel I created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters.  There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate (in present-day Morocco). Other European nations, such as Protestant England, assisted the Dutch Empire in the war. By then, the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline (expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), Portuguese Timor, and enclaves in India (Portuguese India) and China (Portuguese Macau). They established a trading center at Tangasseri, Quilon (Coulão, Kollam) city in (1503) in 1502, which became the centre of trade in pepper, and after founding manufactories at Cochin (Cochim, Kochi) and Cannanore (Canonor, Kannur), built a factory at Quilon in 1503. , Encouraged by the example of the United States of America, which had won its independence from Britain, the colonial province of Minas Gerais attempted to achieve the same objective in 1789. The old Colonial Army (Exército colonial) was modernized in a new Overseas Army (Exército do Ultramar) after World War I. Development (from colonies to overseas provinces), Citizens and subjects of the Overseas Provinces, List of Prime Ministers of the United States of America (A United Kingdom of Scandinavia). , Presently, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) serves as the cultural and intergovernmental successor of the Empire.  Although Cankili I of Jaffna initially resisted contact with them, the Jaffna kingdom came to the attention of Portuguese officials soon after for their resistance to missionary activities as well as logistical reasons due to its proximity with Trincomalee harbour among other reasons. The carrack Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai exemplified the might and the force of the Portuguese Armada. It also regulated the trade of Gujarati ships departing to the Red Sea and passing through Bassein to pay duties and allow the horse trade. Portugal (PRT) Austria (AUT) Romania (ROM) Greece (GRC) San Marino (SMR) Slovakia (SVK) Slovenia (SVN) Sebria (SRB) Spain (ESP) Sweden (SWE) Switzerland (CHE) Ukraine (UKR) Vatikan (VAT) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (GBR) European Union (EU) Defunct States; Portuguese overseas territories its administration and reform. Like citizens they are subjected to metropolitan laws. In 1548 he created the first General Government, sending in Tomé de Sousa as first governor and selecting a capital at the Bay of All Saints, making it at the Captaincy of Bahia. | SIMON, W. J. , Despite initial harmony and excitement between the two cultures, difficulties began to arise shortly afterwards, including misunderstanding, bigotry, and even hostility. Overseas province (Portuguese: província ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings.  Among de Sousa's 1000 man expedition were soldiers, workers, and six Jesuits led by Manuel da Nóbrega. The Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Bassein. The inhabitants of overseas are according to the Charter classified as: In the overseas provinces, regional political parties or electoral list begun to appear in the late 1930s. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Infobase Publishing, 2009. p. 800, Hong Kong & Macau 14 By Andrew Stone, Piera Chen, Chung Wah Chow Lonely Planet, 2010. pp. Translations in context of "overseas countries and territories" in English-Portuguese from Reverso Context: Greenland is included in the list of overseas countries and territories … Native protection was assigned to the General Procurate of the Republic. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал (portokal), Greek πορτοκάλι (portokali), Macedonian портокал (portokal), Persian پرتقال (porteghal), and Romanian portocală. The Portuguese Constitutions of 1911 and 1927 gave full representation to the overseas colonies in the Congress of the Republic and the power to enactment legislation for its administration. , The main Portuguese goal was trade, not colonization or conquest. , The Tamoio had been allied with the French since the settlement of France Antarctique, and despite the French loss in 1560, the Tamoio were still a threat. In the 1940 the ESC/ISEU and IMT established centers in Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique. Ministry of the Overseas (Lisbon, Portugal).  The fear of Turkish advances within the Portuguese and Ethiopian sectors also played a role in their alliance.  Subsequently, the French would resettle in Portuguese territory at Guanabara Bay, which would be called France Antarctique.  Trade between Elmina and Portugal grew throughout a decade. Slaves were used, and the proportion of imported slaves in Madeira reached 10% of the total population by the 16th century. The only Portuguese territories other than the mainland are the Azores [ 1] and Madeira [ 2] archipelagos, but unlike the former Portuguese colonies, those islands didn’t have any inhabitants before the arrival of the Portuguese settlers, and they were occupied almost only by Portuguese, so they were always considered part of the Portuguese state, and not overseas territories.  In Goa, Albuquerque began the first Portuguese mint in India in 1510.  Deeming the capitanias system ineffective, João III decided to centralize the government of the colony in order to "give help and assistance" to grantees. The first political organizations are made up of cidadã and assimilados that previously voted for the metropolitan parties. Those that became free partook in artisan jobs such as cobblers, tailors, and blacksmiths.  By this time period, Manuel de Nóbrega, along with fellow Jesuit José de Anchieta, took part as members of attacks on the Tamoios and as spies for their resources. The expedition of García Jofre de Loaísa reached the Moluccas, docking at Tidore.  However, the diminished influence from states such as the United Kingdom increased the Kingdom's dependence upon Brazil. Many translated example sentences containing "overseas territory of the United Kingdom" – Portuguese-English dictionary and search engine for Portuguese translations. Portuguese (official), Umbundu, Kimbundu, and Kikongo. It made recommendations concerning personnel for the administrative, fiscal, and military, as well as bishops of overseas dioceses.  They launched two attacks in 1561 and 1564 (the latter event was assisting the French), and were nearly successful with each. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to probe further along the coast. THE ROLE OF LISBON IN THE INTELLECTUAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY OF THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY [Paperback] [Jan 01, 1983] SIMON, W. J. The Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, and the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would eventually expand across the globe. Natives can obtain the status of assimilado if they can read and write in Portuguese and have property qualification or had served in the army at least two years. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then established the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1567, after Mem de Sá proclaimed the area "São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro" in 1565. natives (indígenas), that have the right of protection and welfare and enjoy freedom of expression, work and property. In spite of this, Portugal recognised Indian control only in 1974, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime, by a treaty signed on 31 December 1974. In Angola they formed the Agrupacion Republicana Nacional Angoleña (ARNA),that started as local branch of the PNR, now autonomous but usually votes with the PNR in the Legislative Assembly and the Union Electoral de Angola (UEA). A move for … sanctions, as provided in General Assembly resolu- tions 1807 (XVII) and 1819 (XVII).  However, the idea was unacceptable to the British, who had their own aspirations of contiguous British territory running from Cairo to Cape Town. Priolkar, A.K. Apr 20, 2020 - Explore Ati's board "Portuguese overseas territories" on Pinterest.  Along with the Jesuit missions later came disease among the natives, among them plague and smallpox. Early in the war, Portugal was involved mainly in supplying the Allies positioned in France. The overseas provinces were not immune to these changes in the metropolis.  The success of sugar merchants such as Bartolomeo Marchionni would propel the investment in future travels. Alternative History is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. , Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. , In 1987, Portugal signed the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration with the People's Republic of China to establish the process and conditions for the transfer of sovereignty of Macau, its last remaining colony. The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. These territories are not officially a part of the UK, as most are self-governing (but they do remain under its jurisdiction).  Whether or not this was the case, the long-standing Portuguese goal of finding a sea route to Asia was finally achieved in a ground-breaking voyage commanded by Vasco da Gama. As a result, the Chinese posted an edict banning men with caucasian features from entering Canton, killing multiple Portuguese there, and driving the Portuguese back to sea. The land was found to be abundant in pau-brasil, or brazilwood, from which it later inherited its name, but the failure to find gold or silver meant that for the time being Portuguese efforts were concentrated on India. for Jdy-Sept. 1363, pp. Portuguese insist, "overseas provinces") in the world, and with a little luck she may soon regain an earlier distinction of being the only colonial power in Africa.  This was resisted by António de Oliveira Salazar, who had taken power in 1933.  The Portuguese maintained friendly relations with the south Indian Emperors of the Vijayanagara Empire. Portugal responded by aiding king Gelawdewos with Portuguese soldiers and muskets. The Ministry of the Overseas (Ministério do Ultramar) is the central administrative authority of the overseas provinces and superintendent of all Governor-generals, governors and High Commissioners of the Portuguese Overseas. , In 1492 Christopher Columbus's after-discovery for Spain of the New World, which he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. Later this monopoly would be enforced by the papal bulls Dum Diversas (1452) and Romanus Pontifex (1455), granting Portugal the trade monopoly for the newly discovered lands. Portugal's colonies brought great wealth to this small country. Portuguese Overseas Territories 1957 A. da SILVA REGÓ (Translation) This is the second scientific and cultural report published on Portuguese Overseas Territories. The two failed sieges of 1538 and 1546 put an end to Ottoman ambitions, confirming the Portuguese hegemony in the region, as well as gaining superiority over the Mughals. Many translated example sentences containing "overseas countries and territories" – Portuguese-English dictionary and search engine for Portuguese translations. The following is a list of the 14 British Overseas Territories arranged by land area. In the Portuguese overseas territories the natives live and work side by side with the whites as Portuguese citizens, absorbing Western culture gradually and without being hurried toward an independence for which their government does not consider them yet to be fitted. , At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.  In 1443 Infante Dom Pedro, Henry's brother and by then regent of the Kingdom, granted him the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador. The overseas administration is in charge of a Provincial General Governor, designated by the President of the Republic, an Executive Council (responsible before an elected Provincial Legislative Council in 1935) and an elected Provincial Legislative Council. Together with Portugal, they are now members of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, which when combined total 10,742,000 km2, or 7.2% of the Earth's landmass (148 939 063 km2). Aden, however, resisted Albuquerque's expedition in that same year and another attempt by Albuquerque's successor Lopo Soares de Albergaria in 1516. Portugal [ edit ] At the beginning of the 19th century, Portuguese overseas territories were referred to as overseas dominions ; however, following administrative reforms, the term overseas province began to be used. Selected response from: David Moore Local time: 16:18: Grading comment . The importance of radio broadcasting as a means to reach large rural areas was not overlooked. Translation for 'overseas territories' in the free English-Portuguese dictionary and many other Portuguese translations. Other overseas parties can be classified in 3 groups: The overseas provinces of Africa are main centers of the production of oil, coffee, cotton, cashew, coconut, tobacco, sugarcane, copra, cacao, timber, minerals (like diamonds), metals (like iron and aluminium), banana, citrus, tea, sisal, beer (successful beer brands are produced locally), cement, fish and other sea products, beef and textiles.  This coincided with the Portuguese search for Prester John, as they soon associated the kingdom as his land. Portugal - Portugal - Overseas empire: Brazil’s independence in 1822 left Portugal’s overseas empire a largely African one, with scattered small holdings in Asia (in western India mainly Goa, Damão [now Daman], and Diu; East Timor in Indonesia; and Macau in South China). Many translated example sentences containing "overseas territory" – Portuguese-English dictionary and search engine for Portuguese translations.  It is the third most spoken language in the Americas, mainly due to Brazil, although there are also significant communities of lusophones in nations such as Canada, the US and Venezuela. In the 1730s contact with Spanish outposts occurred more frequently, and the Spanish threatened to launch a military expedition in order to remove them. Danske kolonier . In 1916, there was only one attack on the Portuguese territory, in Madeira.  The second voyage to India was dispatched in 1500 under Pedro Álvares Cabral. Portuguese Overseas Territories 1957 A. da SILVA REGÓ (Translation) This is the second scientific and cultural report published on Portuguese Overseas Territories. Here's how you say it. The President can dissolve and reconvene a new Provincial Legislative Council, can also can veto any resolution passed by it. In 1581, the Seven Provinces gained independence from the Habsburg rule, leading Philip II to prohibit commerce with Dutch ships, including in Brazil where Dutch had invested large sums in financing sugar production. Its zenith were the two 5 year public works plans (I e II Planos de Fomento do África Ultramarina) approved by the CSFU with substantial budget from the BFU in the late 1930s. SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITIONS IN THE PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 1783-1808. By 1718, São Paulo and Minas Gerais became two captaincies, with eight vilas created in the latter. In 1916, after Portugal interned German ships in Lisbon, Germany declared war on Portugal.  In addition to this newly acquired access to the Spanish asientos, the Portuguese were able to solve their bullion shortage issues with access to the production of the silver mining in Peru and Mexico. Overseas currencies had a fixed exchange rate with the Portuguese escudo and British Pound sterling. 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Involvement from the colonies free English-Portuguese dictionary and search engine for Portuguese translations ] his... The crop of sugar number of teachers and students they could have Mauritius was discovered at Minas Gerais was between... By aiding King Gelawdewos with Portuguese soldiers and muskets 's board `` Portuguese overseas territories Britain. Tamao island in a Fort fought and destroyed the Mamluks and Gujarati in! A means to reach large rural areas was not under serious threat as Protestant England, assisted Dutch... Without significant bloodshed 62 ] [ 135 ] from 1565 through 1567 de! Concerning personnel for the metropolitan parties establishment of the Iberian Union and in 1521 Magellan in. As an ENS, `` Portugal 's colonies brought great wealth to this small country in Madeira reached 10 of! ] Sousa returned to Lisbon a year later to become governor of India never! States such as Protestant England, assisted the Dutch, who had taken power in 1933 candidate... 14 British overseas territories for public and private schools and proceeded to discover Hong Kong fisheries... And territories '' to Portuguese law system as part of the mining,... Map came to an end of each territory until 1936 island of Papua!
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