Bach sometimes wrote “symmetrically” too: if the melody would go up or down by a certain interval, the bass line would mirror it by doing the opposite. IHS 89 Key G Dorian mode Year/Date of Composition Y/D of Comp. Listen to excerpt 1 – “Come ye daughters.”, To hear both examples, listen to excerpt 8, Listen to excerpt 9 to hear the rippling motion, Not a Time to Take Sides – Except God’s Side. We know Bach wrote an earlier setting when he was the ducal concertmeister in Weimar (1714-1717) though this has not survived. (According to the Bach scholar Z. Philip Ambrose, the most famous one “O sacred head,” by Han Leo Hassler, was originally a secular love song.) In an age when churches are normally dark and empty, why are crowds still flocking to hear such an overtly religious piece – an age when any song you could ever want can be had with the flick of your finger? The view of the St. Matthew Passion as a symmetrical double-chorus work has arisen largely from the experience of modern performances that use distinct soloists and two large choirs. The best example is (again) the chorales, which often have similar (if not identical) melodies but are harmonized differently in order to evoke different emotions. It is an audible symbol of human frailty, akin to Peter’s failure of courage.”. It is a theatrical concept, a drama. Notes at the Bach Museum in Leipzig contain complaints by his contemporaries suggesting that he was too easy on the pupils in his care, who, instead of doing their studies in the evening, ran wild through the streets. This Easter-time Berlin presentation was a stunning success and was followed by others. Notizen zur Matthäus-Passion ⇒ 11 more: Ich bin's, ich sollte büßen • Erkenne mich, mein Hüter • Ich will hier bei dir stehen • Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh' all Zeit • Mir hat die Welt trüglich gericht't mit Lügen • Wer hat dich so geschlagen • Bin ich gleich von dir gewichen • Befiehl du deine Wege • Wie wunderbarlich ist doch diese Strafe! It is almost miraculous that the complete renaissance of Bach’s music which took place after 1829 was due to the performance of a work that had been quite forgotten yet is regarded today as one of his most complex and profound creations of Western music. Another is anguished, set in a minor key with an unsettling chromatic bass line that never really finds its footing till the end. Each of these performances sold out quickly, despite tickets ranging from $30 to $80 apiece. In the same sequence, a flurry of chords dissipating in different directions illustrates Christ’s words about the scattering of his flock. Is it really just the music drawing people? In 1723, the family moved to Leipzig, where Bach spent the rest of his life, mostly at St. Thomas, where he was cantor, though also at the city’s other big church, St. Nicholas. In the end, perhaps it is Bach’s insistence on reminding us of this “whole Gospel” that gives his Passion such depth. Among other duties, his post required him to instruct the members of the Thomanerchor (the boys’ choir of St. Thomas) in singing and in Latin, and to provide weekly music at both of these churches. David Gordon notes, “Only at the moment of Christ’s death does this halo fall away, and Jesus utters his poignant final ‘Why have You forsaken Me?’ accompanied by the basso continuo alone.”. This was an unorthodox way of presenting religious history and not the kind of thing that the more devout members of the congregation / audience felt was appropriate for a church, the feeling being that the work was too ‘operatic’. (‘Passion’ is derived from the Latin verb ‘patior’ meaning ‘to suffer’ or ‘endure’, from which we also get ‘patience’ and ‘patient’.) Warner Classics: 7777630585. Until 1975, it was held that the first performance of Bach’s St Matthew Passion was on Good Friday 1729. Ross, Alex. Google “St. (Instead, the choir, dressed in street clothes, was arranged on a round stage, with the audience around it, to invite maximum participation in the experience.) A Study of The St Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach Music Assignment Grades 6-8 Name_____ Date_____ Listen to Leonard Bernstein’s musical analysis of the Bach St. Matthew Passion (16 minutes) and answer the following questions: 1. Who does the chorus represent? That’s the simple choral melody set above the swirling accompaniment. In the early 1820s, the director of the Berlin Singakademie, Carl Zelter, got hold of a copy of Bach’s St Matthew Passion and rehearsed some of the choral movements in private. Gordon, David. Fania Records: How A New York Label Took Salsa To The World, Pride Of The Opry: Charley Pride Makes Musical And Cultural History, ‘Here Come The Warm Jets’: Bathing In Brian Eno’s Genius. His second wife, Anna Magdalena, was a singer, and bore him thirteen more children. When my wife and I lived in New York, the Brooklyn Academy of Music was offering a series of special Passion concerts each spring that dispensed with the customary stand-and-sing presentation. Listen to excerpt 3: the Passover story; Jesus’ prediction that one of his disciples will betray him; the evangelist’s depiction of their growing sorrow; and finally, the question, “Lord, is it I?”, The following chorale (excerpt 4) answers their question from our perspective: “Lord, it is my sin that binds thee – I am the one who ought to be suffering such tortures.”. Returning to the idea of a cast: there are also commentators. The solo vocal and multipart choral styles of Italian Baroque music were strongly influential in Germany. In the case of the St. Matthew Passion, this devotion seems to have extended even to the care with which the text was shaped. By drawing us right into the shadow of the Cross and prying open our hearts to Christ’s agony there, he invites us to share in it as fully as possible. Listen to excerpts 12 and 13 - the last recitative, followed by the powerful closing chorus, “In tears of grief.”, Ambrose, Z. Philip. The available information derives from extant early manuscripts, contemporary publications of the libretto, … We gladly renounce private property and share everything in common. Seen from a distance, the two ensembles, each visually dominated by a large number of singers, do indeed look equal. . (There’s a whole book devoted to this subject called Bach and the Physics of Music.) Here, a few examples: In one number, the cello ascends a major scale, as the singer describes Christ’s ascent of the Mount of Olives. Typically, these are done with all performers in street clothes or neutral costumes, the orchestras on stage, the soloists singing without scores, and the words acted out in a solemn fashion, with only a minimal stage set. Highlights to look out for are the alto aria ‘Buss Und Reu’ (‘Penance And Remorse’), one for soprano, ‘Blute Nur, Du Liebes Herz! In the St. Matthew Passion, Bach indulges his gypsy soul. The Joy of Music (2nd Edition) J.S. By great good fortune, two of his singers were Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn. Just at this point, Bach interrupts the narrative to insert the chorale “’Tis I who am most guilty,” a stark reminder that the real responsibility for Christ’s betrayal is not Judas’s alone, but that each of us must bear our part. Bach did not act as his own librettist for the St Matthew Passion. Gardiner, John Eliot. “Atonement: The St. Matthew Passion at the Armony,” The New Yorker, (Oct. 27, 2014) In the first instance, the text refers to Christ’s prediction of his sufferings. For example, he wrote melodies comprised of 14 notes, 14 being the sum of the letters of his name, with each letter representing a number (A = 1, B = 2, etc). 40, while the tenor sings “My Jesus remains silent before the liars’ falsehoods,” the accompaniment is made up of 39 brief chords. Thus, the score is laid out for Chorus 1 and Orchestra 1, Chorus 2 and Orchestra 2. I keep trying to like “purist” performances including Gardner but I can’t mare up to them. Bach, written in 1727 for solo voices, double choir and double orchestra, with libretto by picander. But... January 12, 2021 by Charles & Leslie Moore. These events were so well attended that you had to come several hours early if you wanted a good seat. This is a reference to Psalm 39, which contains the line, “I will keep my mouth with a bridle while the wicked stand before me.”. In Hans’s reply (from Munich, where he is studying medicine), he says he didn’t go; he fears it wouldn’t have meant much to him. Note that whereas Bach used the organ and other instruments to accompany most voices of the cast, he used strings alone as accompaniment whenever Jesus himself speaks, resulting in what Bernstein called a shimmering “halo” effect. No. He began earning his own living at fifteen as a chorister and violinist in a court orchestra, and later became a church organist. St Matthew Passion - Bach. We are an intentional Christian community of more than 3,000 people living in twenty-eight settlements on four continents. Title Historia des Leidens und Sterbens unseres Herrn und Heiland Jesu Christi nach dem Evangelisten Matthäus St Matthew Passion Composer Schütz, Heinrich: Opus/Catalogue Number Op./Cat. In Bach’s time, St Thomas’s had two organ lofts – the larger of the two accommodating the musicians for Sunday services throughout the year, the smaller loft used for the additional numbers needed for the music at Christmas and Easter. Still another is solid and confident, representing strength and faith. I compiled them simply in order to share an ongoing fascination with this unrivaled depiction of Christ’s final sufferings – unrivaled in its poetic and musical scope, its spiritual depth, and its uncanny ability to stir the soul. These would have been well-known to the congregation of St Thomas’s, the oldest dating back to the early 16th century. According to the critic Alex Ross, all this is a fruit of Bach’s intent, which was not merely to set an important text to music, but to bring to life a theological truth. The whole piece takes 3+ hours to perform but this 7 and a half minute section is … The crowd says, “Not upon this feast!” Then the evangelist sings of the anointing of Jesus in Bethany, and the crowd reacts, “To what purpose is this waste?” to which Jesus responds by singing of how the woman who anointed him will always be remembered. Based largely on gleanings from other sources (see the endnotes), they’re not especially original. But what should it be? A local Lutheran preacher, Salomon Deyling, supervised the writing of the text, using the 26th and 27th chapters of St Matthew’s Gospel (in his manuscript, Bach underlined the words of the Scripture with red ink). These led directly to a complete reassessment and revival of interest in all of Bach’s music for, baffling as it seems nowadays, Johann Sebastian Bach had fallen into near obscurity since his death nearly 80 years earlier. On the other hand, as the writer Johann Heinrich Arnold (a lifelong lover of the St. Matthew Passion) stresses in his book Discipleship (1995). In short, you don’t need to understand it to be moved by it. According to the Japanese Bach scholar Tadashi Isoyama, recent research indicates that Bach’s librettist (the Leipzig poet Christian Friedrich Henrici, who went by the pen name Picander) drew on collections of passion sermons included in Bach’s personal library, and that “it seems probable that Bach did not simply select verses and set them to music, but rather influenced the construction of the texts.”. Explore our guide to Bach’s ‘St Matthew Passion’ widely regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces of classical sacred music. (Despite this prodigious output, by the way, Bach was not known so much as a composer during these years, but first and foremost as a brilliant organist, organ builder and technician, and teacher. There had already been a long history of Passion music – that is musical settings telling the story of the final, short period in the life of Jesus. They all seem barren compared to Karl Richter’s intensity with Ernst Haefliger singing eevagelist, Your email address will not be published. Bach St Matthew Passion: Text, Translation and Musical Notes . As Hans David It is this sort of device that makes the oratorio so heart-rending. 17, the bass accompaniment consists of 116 notes, a not-so-subtle reference to Psalm 116, which has the verse, “I will take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord.”, In No. Versions and contemporaneous performances. Bach’s St Matthew Passion this evening and it is particularly special to be finally performing this great work given the unexpected weather that forced us to cancel this event in March 2018. Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion, BWV 244, is structured on multiple levels: the composition is structured in three levels of text sources and by the different forms that are used for musical expression. Scholarly articles on its structure. It is also, as Mendelssohn himself noted wryly, somewhat ironic that “it took an actor and the son of Jew to revive the greatest Christian music for the world!”. For until we are willing to open ourselves to the suffering that took place at Gethsemane and on Golgotha, it cannot work its redemptive powers in us. Programme Notes - Musical Director (St Matthew Passion) Posted: 25th February 2019 For the concert on 9 March 2019: It is a privilege to welcome you to our performance of J.S. As Tadashi Isoyama writes, “Put simply, the Passion is music that calls for mankind to reflect and to awaken. The music is seductive, even voluptuous. To some, this may sound like a dismal way to end an evening. For a specific example relating to Bach, there’s Paul Simon’s song “American Tune,” which is almost identical to “O Sacred Head.”. This sort of turbulent, emotionally charged musical outcry is known as a “turba” (i.e. Sign up for a weekly email from the Bruderhof, Follow us on Instagram for snapshots of Bruderhof life. In April 1829, despite strong opposition from some quarters, the twenty-year-old Mendelssohn, with the help of Zelter and his friend the actor Eduard Devrient, mounted the work’s first modern performance, albeit in an abbreviated form, given to mark what was then thought to be the centenary of its first performance. In 1725, two years after he took up his appointment of cantor at St. Thomas’s, he wrote the Passion According To St. John. At the Bach House in Eisenach, where he was born and raised, numerous Bibles, hymnals, and multi-volume works by Martin Luther (in some cases heavily marked in the margins) attest to the fact that he had more than a passing interest in theology, and that he took his faith seriously. “Programmatic Notes to Bach’s St. Matthew Passion” (1999) It sets chapters 26 and 27 of the Gospel of Matthew (in Luther's German translation) to music, with chorales and arias. We’ll start in one of the most sublime and powerful corners of J.S. He died of a stroke (after an unsuccessful eye operation) in 1750, at the age of 65, and was buried in an unmarked grave. In between (how there was any “in between” at all, with so many children, is beyond my comprehension) she assisted him by copying his scores. It’s a melody originally written by one Hans Leo Hassler (1562-1612). Then there’s the so-called Lord Supper sequence, where, as mentioned earlier, the phrase “Lord, is it I?” is repeated eleven times – once for each faithful disciple. Whereas Picander designates Choir I as “the Daughters of Zion” (Jesus’s contemporaries) he marks Choir II as “The Faithful” – us latter-day witnesses to his death. The full title (from the cover of Bach’s fair copy) is Passio Domini Nostri J. C. Secundum Evangelistam Matthaeum; that is, “The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the Gospel of Matthew.” Of course, the word “passion” does not refer to “love” in this instance, but comes from passio – a participle of the Latin verb “to suffer.”, Bach sets out to make this suffering palpable in the first chorus by its mood: turbulence, anguish, minor chords, and then light breaking through with what Leonard Bernstein called the “redemptive clarity” of the ripieno. This new version of the Bach Saint Matthew Passion has a fresh new interpretation of the Passion, as well as Bach's own structuring from the Gospel of Matthew. In the 1740s, he began to go blind. Look at any big city newspaper around Easter, and you’re sure to find a performance advertised somewhere. Some of these are obvious because of the interplay of music and text; others are open to interpretation and have been “discovered,” so to speak, by critics over the years. These take two forms: there are eleven chorales which “step outside the action at significant spots and react to the story…They provide commentary and create a sense of a community response to the events just described by the soloists.” Then there are the four longer choruses that frame each half of the Passion, like bookends. Listen to excerpt 2 – and note the evangelist, the turbae, and the strings accompanying the voice of Jesus. Matthew Passion” (1999) Matthew Passion,” for starters, and you’ll come up with a staggering number of matches. What sort of piece is Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, that it has such a wide reach and such tremendous staying power? Only two survive today; the second of these, the St. Matthew Passion dates from 1729. We used to go to similar (free) concerts at St. Peter’s, a church on the Upper East Side, where the audience was invited to sing along with each chorale. Bach’s first wife died in 1720, and he remarried the next year. In yet another, the basses stumble over and over the same phrase, illustrating Jesus’s footsteps as he stumbles under the weight of the cross. There was no room for a stage, and no time for scene changes.) Geiringer, Karl. Listen to excerpt 10, which depicts the whole sequence of Peter’s betrayal, and ends with him weeping. Without guilt, forgiveness is meaningless, and without death – without Good Friday – there could not be possibly be such a thing as resurrection and the joy of Easter. It prompts repentance, urging us to turn from vice toward freedom and salvation. Leaving the cyber-world for the real, it’s much the same. In the biblical text, vocal soloists portray Jesus, Pilate, other individual characters, and Matthew the Evangelist, delivering their narration and … Days before, I had arranged tickets for two other groups who plan to attend performances in the vicinity; and come April, the yearly Bach-Wochen (“Bach Weeks”) will be drawing musicians and music-lovers from around the globe for an overwhelming smorgasbord of offerings put on by local conservatories, churches, choirs, and orchestras. One can only imagine what St. Augustine, who agonized over the seductive dangers of chant, would make of it. Johann Sebastian Bach is widely regarded the greatest musical genius of all time. Hildel, Winifred. Thus, the whole work is structured as a repeated pattern of Biblical narrative, comment, and prayer. In a book of letters by Hans and Sophie Scholl, the famous German siblings beheaded in 1943 for their outspoken resistance to Hitler, a letter from their mother, Magdalena, admonishes Hans not to forget the importance of receiving Communion at Easter. The LP comes with a two-page leaflet and original liner notes by Sir John in English and German. Bach's large choral composition was written to present the Passion, as told in the Gospel of Matthew, in a vespers service on Good Friday. In 2020 the whole world seemed to be waiting for the great conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. The results are just full of wonder, and bittersweet joy--perfectly suited to the seasons f Easter and Passover, not to mention the Time of the Coronavirus disease plague in 2020. 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